The Foundation of Modern India
Every citizen living on a particular country should know about his/her respected country.In this post i would provide you a short but important information about what happened when the East India Company left India and the beginning of the foundation of modern India.This whole post is about what all happened when the Britishers(East India Company) left India in 1947 and what were the consequences created by them and also the Kashmir Conflict.
Integration of 565 Princely States with India
Several large and small states ruled by Provinces were directly princes, called the Princely under the control of States, enjoyed some form of British government control over their internal affairs as long as they accepted British supremacy.All total there were 565 Princely States in India.As the British left India their control over the princely States was to an end and these 565 Princely States were legally Independent to choose whether to go with India,Pakistan or to become an Independent Nation itself.This Decision was not left over the people but to the princely rulers of that state.Partion between India and Pakistan was done by Lord Mountbatten and the decision of partitioning India and Pakistan was result in many deaths around the country.Lord Mountbatten ordered all the Princely State rulers to sign the Instrument of Accession. The Instrument of Accession was a legal document first introduced by the Government of India Act 1935 and used in 1947 to enable each of the rulers of the princely states under British paramountcy to join one of the new dominions of India or Pakistan created by the Partition of British India.These Princely states have their right to declare themselves as an Independent Nation.Hyderabad,Jammu and Kashmir were some of the Princely States who wanted to have their own Nation.
Due to the fact that many people would be killed in the riots,Lord Mountbatten decided to help Princely States to stay within India due to it’s geographical conditions.With the help of Lord Mountbatten it made the integration less difficult for Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was a very Important person who made it possible.He, by his tactics, broke the union of separatist princes. By August 15, 1947 all except Hyderabad, Junagarh and Kashmir acceded to India. He thereafter carried three fold process of assimilation, centralization and unification of states. The states were amalgamated to form a union and that union was merged with the Union of India.
He handled the Junagarh and Hyderabad crisis as a seasoned statesman. Nawab of Junagarh wanted to accede to Pakistan. When the people revolted, Patel intervened. Indian Government took over the administration. Patel merged it with India by holding a plebiscite.
Image Source :- Here
Now it was a situation of riots all round India.Many princely states started declaring themselves as an Independent Nation.Travancore was a Princely State in the Southern part of India.Travancore declared himself as an Independent Nation.This created many riots in between and it result in a loss of many people.
At that time Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and V. P. Menon Started the Integration Process.In 15 August 1947 finally India got freedom from the British Rule and became an Independent Nation.But there were still some issues within the country.Almost all the princely states were became a part of Indian Government with the help of Lord Mountbatten,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and V.P menon,but still then King of Jammu Kashmir haven’t signed the Instrument of Accession and therefore Pakistani army entered in some part of Jammu and Kashmir,Later King of Jammu Kashmir Signed the Instrument of Accession and Jammu and Kashmir was a part of India.But the area which was occupied by the Pakistani Army was still a part of Pakistan and a dispute is still going between the Two Countries.
It is said that,If king Hari Singh had signed the Instrument of Accession before the Independence of India in time,then the Dispute between India and Pakistan never happened.
Jawaharlal Nehru,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel,V.P Menon,Lord Mountbatten are few people who helped to make India look same as it look today.